Our English Spanish translation service comprises a wide variety of English into Spanish translations. Our Spanish linguists also write de novo Spanish articles based on English or Spanish texts. English Spanish translators in our group also write Spanish medical news for the general public about important new medical findings.
English or Spanish Science Language Articles.
Syntactic comprehension, verbal memory, and calculation abilities in Spanish-English bilinguals. This article analyzes the interfering effect of the second language (L2) on the first language (L1) in native Spanish speakers living in the United States. We examined 3 linguistic aspects: (a) syntactic comprehension, (b) verbal memory, and (c) calculation abilities. We carried out 2 different studies. In the 1st study, we studied syntactic understanding in 50 Spanish-English bilinguals. For all participants, L1 was Spanish and L2 was English, and all learned English early in life and had attended English schools. Results for the Spanish Syntactic Comprehension Test (Marcos & Ostrosky, 1995) were compared with the normative results obtained with 40 Spanish monolingual participants. We observed that the closer to the English syntax the sentences were, the easier it was for the participants to understand them. Participants who had been exposed to English between the ages of 5 and 12 outperformed participants exposed to English before 5 years of age. Language preference correlated with syntactic comprehension. Women outperformed men. In the 2nd study, verbal memory and calculation abilities were examined in L1 and L2 in a group of 85 Spanish-English bilinguals. Parallel versions of the different tests were administered in Spanish and English. The results indicated some significant differences between the 2 languages in several verbal learning and calculation ability subtests. Most of the verbal memory subtests were better performed in L1. Scores on tasks measuring speed and calculation accuracy were higher in the participant's native language. Best spoken language proved to be a significant variable in some verbal memory subtests performed in English but not in Spanish. We analyze implications of bilingualism in neuropsychological testing. We also present some suggestions to minimize the bilingualism effect. an.
Case, inflection and subject licensing in child Catalan and Spanish. The development of specified tense and number morphology in child Catalan and Spanish is found to correlate with the onset of overt subject use. The data come from four monolingual child Catalan-speakers (from the Serrà & Solé corpus) and one monolingual child Spanish-speaker (from the Linaza corpus) who were studied longitudinally from 1:0 to 3;6, approximately. The simultaneous emergence of tense and number morphology on one hand and overt subjects on the other in the children's speech is taken as evidence that a particular aspect of Universal Grammar, Case Theory, determines the possible co-occurrences of verbal inflections and subject types in developing grammatical systems. Parallels in verbal inflectional development are found in other child languages, while such parallels are not found in regard to subject use. Possible modifications to Case Theory, which would allow a unified account of the cross-linguistic developmental patterns of subject use, are considered. The possibility of explaining the early absence of overt subjects in these null subject languages as the result of an early sentence processing deficit is explored and rejected. The children's knowledge of whether their language is a null subject or overt subject language even before acquiring adult-like verbal inflection is taken as further evidence for what has been called 'early convergence' on parameter settings.
Observed and reported expressive vocabulary and word combinations in bilingual toddlers. The consistency of parental reports of expressive vocabulary and word combinations with observed expressive language among 21- to 27-month-old children exposed to English and Spanish on a regular basis was the focus of this investigation. Parental reports were obtained using the Spanish-English Vocabulary Checklist (Patterson, 1998), an adaptation of the Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989). The number of different words parents reported was correlated (r = .66) with the number of different words the children used during a 30-min videotaped interaction with the reporting parent. Parental reports of whether the child was combining words and estimates of proportion of the child's use of Spanish and English also were consistent with the children's language use during the 30-min language samples.