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Article use in Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. The current study analysed article use in Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment who are learning English as a second language. The surface hypothesis account of specific language impairment was evaluated in relation to the use of articles in these children. Language samples were obtained from 15 Spanish-speaking children with language impairment and 15 with normal language, ages 5;0 to 7;1, matched by age, gender, and school. The percentage of article errors was tested between groups with a nonparametric analysis and an analysis of covariance with mean length of terminable unit as the covariate. Results revealed significant differences between groups on percent of article errors with and without MLTU as the covariate. Nonparametric statistics on percent of article error types indicated that most errors consisted of omissions and gender agreement substitutions. As predicted by the Surface Hypothesis, article errors were likely to occur in unstressed definite articles, suggesting that perceptual and prosodic processes have some impact on children's production of articles. jcl.
Why do the aphasic patients produce semantic errors? One of the most striking and surprising symptoms of the aphasic patients is the production of semantic errors. This kind of errors, which consists of replacing a word by another with a different but similar meaning, may appear when speaking, as it happens when a patient say dog in reference to a cat (semantic paraphasia), when reading as it happens when a patient reads dog where is writing cat (semantic paralexia), as well as in repetition or in writing. DEVELOPMENT: Some patients make these errors only in a specific linguistic modality (deep dyslexic patients make semantic errors in reading, deep dysphasic patients in repetition, etc.), but some patients make semantic errors in several modalities or even in all of them. Why these differences and what are the causes of these errors? Nowadays, models of linguistic processing built up from experiments with normal subjects provide us an answer to most of the above questions. From these models, by using appropriate tasks, it is possible to examine the reasons because of a patient makes certain errors. In fact, the results in different tasks help us to locate the deficit of each patient more than errors per se. It has been shown that sometimes the same type of error (e.g. a semantic paraphasia) can be caused by different processes in different patients. In this paper we will try to analyze which are the cognitive processes underlying semantic errors in each of the linguistic activities, when such processes are altered by injury, as well as to determine the best procedures to know what mechanisms are generating semantic errors in each aphasic patient. rn
Performance on a Spanish picture-identification task using a multimedia format. An option for estimating the word-recognition performance of patients who do not speak English as a first language involves using auditory materials, presented in the patient's native language, in conjunction with a closed-set response mode incorporating pictures or written words. The advantage of this auditory/visual paradigm is that the audiologist is not required to know the foreign language and is therefore not required to judge the accuracy of an oral response to speech stimuli in a foreign language. Spanish auditory/visual materials, known as the Spanish Picture-Identification Task, were developed to be used in a computer-driven multimedia administration and scoring format. Performance data, both in open- (word-recognition) and closed-set (word-identification) response modes, were established for the Spanish Picture-Identification Task using subjects whose first language was Spanish. The results from the open-set paradigm indicate that the Spanish Picture-Identification Task word lists are essentially equivalent to conventional Spanish and English materials used for word recognition. Findings from the closed-set conditions indicate that the Spanish Picture-Identification Task materials are appropriate for estimating the word-identification abilities of Spanish-speaking adult listeners. jaaa.