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Semantic verbal fluency of animals: a normative and predictive study in a Spanish population. Semantic verbal fluency is a very sensible but rather unspecific tool for the detection of neuropsychological deficits. This test is highly influenced by socio-cultural factors. Normative and predictive data for semantic verbal fluency of animals in a Spanish population are presented. The studied sample (n = 445) was stratified according to age and schooling. Statistical analysis reconfirmed a significant negative correlation (- 5.34) for age, and a significant positive correlation (5.34) for years of formal education. A predictive function for the production of names of animals during 1 min was established based on the subject's age and level of education: F(x) = 23.89 + age (- .144) + education (.39). The neuropsychological value and limitations of normative data and the predictive equation are discussed. jcen
The role of language in memory for actions. Languages differ with respect to how aspects of motion events tend to be lexicalized. English typically conflates MOTION with MANNER, but Japanese and Spanish typically do not. We report a set of experiments that assessed the effect of this cross-linguistic difference on participants' decisions in a similarity-judgment task about scenes containing novel animations as stimuli. In Experiment 1, which required participants to encode the stimuli briefly into memory, we observed a language effect; in Experiment 2, which required participants to analyze the same stimuli, but not remember them, the language effect disappeared. Hence, these experiments reveal a task-dependent effect, which, we argue, points to working memory as the source of the language effect observed in Experiment 1 and, potentially, other experiments that have shown a linguistic relativity effect. jpr