Our English Spanish translation service comprises a wide variety of English into Spanish translations. Our Spanish linguists also write de novo Spanish articles based on English or Spanish texts. English Spanish translators in our group also write Spanish medical news for the general public about important new medical findings.
English or Spanish Science Language Articles.
A cross-linguistic data bank for oral picture naming in Dutch, English, German, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish (PEDOI). The well established effect of word frequency on adult's picture naming performance is now called into question. This is particularly true for variables which are correlated with frequency, as is the case of age of word acquisition. Since the work of [Carrol and White, 1973] there is growing agreement among researchers to confer an important role in lexical access to this variable. Indeed, it has been shown ( [Hodgson and Ellis, 1998]) that for normal English-speaking adults only the variables 'age-of-acquisition' and 'name agreement' are independent predictors of naming success among the various variables considered. However, when brain-damaged subjects with and without degenerative pathologies are studied, word frequency and word length as well as concept familiarity all give significant effects ( [Hirsh and Funnell, 1995]; [Lambon Ralph et al., 1998]; [Nickels and Howard, 1995]). Finally, it has been suggested that the production of specific error types may be related to such variables. According to [Nickels and Howard, 1994] the production of semantic errors is specifically affected by 'imageability' and in the recent study by [Kremin et al., 2001] 'age of acquisition' predicts (frank) word finding difficulties.
Urological terminology in Francisco Díaz: an example in the history of the Spanish language.
OBJECTIVES: The work "Tratado nuevamente impreso de todas las enfermedades de los riñones, vejiga y carnosidades de la verga y orina" from Francisco Diaz is the first Urology treaty and the main urologic text from the spanish renaissance. The idea that prompted our work was to collect the Romance language from a text about urology dated at the end of the XVI century. Its interest consists, on the one hand in the lack of similar studies, and on the other in the novelty resulting from the fact that the author decided to write in Romance language at a moment in which scientific treaties were written in Latin. METHODS: We performed a meticulous reading of the treaty on a facsimile edition of the original of the same title edited in Madrid in 1588. We extract 1.288 medical terms that we consulted in three modern dictionaries to analyze the lexicon used by Diaz in its composition. We analyze the words from the point of view of their make up and ethimology; we review the meaning of the medical terms in relation to their current use--meaning conservation or loss--, and also the date of appearance of those terms in the spanish language, to know how many of them appeared in the work of Diaz for the first time, and to know the conservation or loss of the meaning that Diaz gave them currently. RESULTS: We extract 1.288 medical terms, 195 of them have been conserved with the same meaning from their origin to date; on the contrary, 35.5% are not found in either of the three dictionaries, so that they are medical terms used by Francisco Diaz for the first time and that were erased by time. 543 medical terms were contributions from Diaz in their first written appearance. CONCLUSIONS: The author performs a magnificent study in which he analyzes and explains his experience, his knowledge, and his deductions on everything referred to urinary tract diseases, with great expertise, offering at the same time an extraordinary living document of his time. It is also an extensive source of medical and general knowledge, provided from the great culture, maturity, and classic education of the author. It is a pleasant-to-read and easy-to-understand work thanks to its exquisite composition and perfect use of the the Romance language, well defined syntax, rich vocabulary, and abundance of practical examples.