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English or Spanish Science Language Articles.
Use of cognitive interviewing to adapt measurement instruments for low-literate Hispanics. PURPOSE: Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to adapt existing measures for use with a population of low-literate Spanish-speaking people with diabetes. METHODS: Five individuals of Caribbean origin with diabetes participated in cognitive interviews for 4 instruments (measuring diabetes knowledge, quality of life, self-management, and depression) adapted for oral administration to low-literate individuals. Audiotaped interviews and handwritten notes were subjected to content analysis to identify problems across the 4 instruments as well as specific to a given instrument. RESULTS: The following key problems were identified: general instructions were not helpful, items that were not specific enough generated a variety of interpretations, some wording was confusing, abstract concepts were difficult to understand, some terminology was unfamiliar, and interpretation of certain words was incorrect. CONCLUSIONS: The data illustrate the usefulness of cognitive interviewing as a first step in the process of adapting measurement instruments. de
Limitations of the mnemonic-keyword method. The effectiveness of the mnemonic-keyword method was investigated in 4 experiments in which participants were required to learn the 1st-language (L1, Spanish) equivalents of a list of 30 2nd-language words (L2, Latin). Experiments 1 (adolescents) and 2 (adults) were designed to assess whether the keyword method was more effective than the rote method; the researcher supplied the keyword, and the participants were allowed to pace themselves through the list. Experiments 3 (adolescents) and 4 (adults) were similar to Experiments 1 and 2 except that the participants were also supplied with a drawing that illustrated the relationship between the keyword and the L1 target word. All the experiments were performed with groups of participants in their classrooms (i.e., not in a laboratory context). In all experiments, the rote method was significantly more effective than was the keyword method. jgp