Our English Spanish translation service comprises a wide variety of English into Spanish translations. Our Spanish linguists also write de novo Spanish articles based on English or Spanish texts. English Spanish translators in our group also write Spanish medical news for the general public about important new medical findings.
English or Spanish Science Language Articles.
Anticipating words and their gender: an event-related brain potential study of semantic integration, gender expectancy, and gender agreement in Spanish sentence reading. Recent studies indicate that the human brain attends to and uses grammatical gender cues during sentence comprehension. Here, we examine the nature and time course of the effect of gender on word-by-word sentence reading. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to an article and noun, while native Spanish speakers read medium- to high-constraint Spanish sentences for comprehension. The noun either fit the sentence meaning or not, and matched the preceding article in gender or not; in addition, the preceding article was either expected or unexpected based on prior sentence context. Semantically anomalous nouns elicited an N400. Gender-disagreeing nouns elicited a posterior late positivity (P600), replicating previous findings for words. Gender agreement and semantic congruity interacted in both the N400 window--with a larger negativity frontally for double violations--and the P600 window--with a larger positivity for semantic anomalies, relative to the prestimulus baseline. Finally, unexpected articles elicited an enhanced positivity (500-700 msec post onset) relative to expected articles. Overall, our data indicate that readers anticipate and attend to the gender of both articles and nouns, and use gender in real time to maintain agreement and to build sentence meaning. jcn
Imagery factors in the Spanish version of the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire. The factor structure and internal consistency reliability of the Spanish version of the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire was analyzed. 969 male and female high school students completed the questionnaire and the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. Factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire comprises five factors: "interest in words," "dream vividness and frequency," "verbal fluency," "task performance difficulty," and "ways of thinking and acting." The internal consistency was very low (Cronbach alpha = .30). The correlation between scores and those on the Gordon test was statistically significant because N was large but very weak (r =.08, p<.05). The questionnaire measured five distinct factors, and this should be taken into account when using the Spanish version rather than a coherent dimension. pr