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Women, nursing, and baccalaureate education in 20th century America. PURPOSE: To analyze the social meaning of the American system of education for nursing practice. METHODS: Historiographical analysis to compare and contrast the relative educational level of different self-reported groups of American women with that of nurses in the later decades of the 20th century. FINDINGS: Early 20th century social support for efforts to improve the overall educational level of some nurses planning careers in education, administration, or public health nursing lent credence to the belief in nursing as a vehicle for upward social mobility. This promise of mobility was particularly apparent in the educational backgrounds of African American, Hispanic, and Asian American nurses. However, the late 20th century decreased average educational level of U.S. nurses relative to that of all U.S. women jeopardizes the clinical and social roles of the profession. CONCLUSIONS: The language of class and community status is needed in addition to that of science, knowledge development, and clinical excellence to increase social and political support for educational initiatives. jns
Event related brain potentials and imageability effect in the semantic processing. INTRODUCTION: Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) are a useful measure of the brain activity underlying linguistic processing. They can also be used to study cognitive/linguistic impairment in different neurological diseases. To do this, it is necessary to know which electrophysiological components are related to relevant linguistic parameters, and the characteristics of these components. One of these parameters is the dimension of concrete-abstract or imageability. AIM: To find electrophysiological evidence for differential processing of concrete vs abstract verbal material, in the absence of brain damage. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The short, semantically congruent sentences used were made up of high or low imageability (HI/LI) verbs followed by HI/LI complements. We also manipulated close probability in the case of the complement. Sentences were shown word by word and participants were asked to make an imageability judgement. Electrophysiological recording during verb and final complement were analysed in ten subjects. RESULTS: Electrophysiological recording obtained during verb presentation show an imageability effect starting at 350 ms (especially in the N400 component) with no differential scalp distribution. There is a similar tendency in the recordings of final complements, although differences in imageability are not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the existence of an imageability effect in the ERPs associated with semantic processing in semantically congruent sentences and that this effect is produced when the verb is presented. rn