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English or Spanish Science Language Articles.
Training Japanese listeners to perceive American English vowels: influence of training sets. PURPOSE: Studies on speech perception training have shown that adult 2nd language learners can learn to perceive non-native consonant contrasts through laboratory training. However, research on perception training for non-native vowels is still scarce, and none of the previous vowel studies trained more than 5 vowels. In the present study, the influence of training set sizes was investigated by training native Japanese listeners to identify American English (AE) vowels. METHOD: Twelve Japanese learners of English were trained 9 days either on 9 AE monophthongs (fullset training group) or on the 3 more difficult vowels (subset training group). Five listeners served as controls and received no training. Performance of listeners was assessed before and after training as well as 3 months after training was completed. RESULTS: Results indicated that (a) fullset training using 9 vowels in the stimulus set improved average identification by 25%; (b) listeners in both training groups generalized improvement to untrained words and tokens spoken by novel speakers; and (c) both groups maintained improvement after 3 months. However, the subset group never improved on untrained vowels. CONCLUSIONS: Training protocols for learning non-native vowels should present a full set of vowels and should not focus only on the more difficult vowels. JSLHR.
A case study of integrating protein interaction data using semantic web technology. We describe a new ontology-driven semantic data integration approach for post-genome biology studies. Here, a view-based global schema can be automatically generated by merging RDF schemas from local databases. The semantic inconsistency of the merged schema is resolved by the creation of 'RDF ontology maps'. Data querying capability is accomplished with a virtual data repository, in which a D2RQ-based 'relational-to-RDF' map is developed to link schema to the relational database backend. With sample RDQL queries, we demonstrate that our approach significantly simplifies the retrieval of human protein interaction data from different databases containing hundreds of thousands of records. IJBRA