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Concept mediation in trilingual translation: evidence from response time and repetition priming patterns. Translation responses to individual words were elicited from 48 English-Spanish-French trilinguals, who translated in six directions at study and two directions at test. Patterns of translation response times and error rates at study reflected the relative proficiency of the trilinguals in comprehension and production of their three languages. At test, repeated items were translated more quickly than new items, with the strongest priming effects occurring for identical repetitions. Repetition priming was also substantial when only the stimulus language or only the response language matched from study to test, implying that repeated comprehension and production processes contribute to priming in translation. Patterns of response times and repetition priming indicate that translation in all directions involved conceptual access. Additive patterns in response time asymmetries and repetition priming were consistent with the treatment of word comprehension and production processes of translation as independent. PBR
Bilingualism affects picture naming but not picture classification.
Bilinguals named pictures in their dominant language more slowly (and with more errors) than did monolinguals. In contrast, bilinguals named the same pictures as quickly as did monolinguals on the fifth presentation (in Experiment 2) and classified them (as human made or natural) as quickly and accurately as did monolinguals (in Experiment 1). In addition, bilinguals retrieved English picture names more quickly if they knew the name in both Spanish and English (on the basis of a translation test that bilinguals completed after the timed tasks), and monolingual response times for the same materials suggested that this finding was not obtained simply because names that were easier to translate were easier in general. These findings suggest that bilinguals differ from monolinguals at a postconceptual processing level, that implicit activation of lexical representations in the nontarget language can facilitate retrieval in the target language, and that being bilingual is analogous to having a lexicon full of lower frequency words, relative to monolinguals. MC