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Same or different? Semantic verbal fluency across Spanish-speakers from different countries. Several investigations have suggested that age, education and culture affect semantic fluency. To date, there is no research work indicating whether there are differences among speakers of the same language but from different countries. It has been proposed that despite having the same language, each Spanish-speaking country should have its normative data. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of age, education and culture to semantic fluency in Spanish-speakers. Age and level of education are determining factors in semantic fluency performance. The differences found may be due to the variability in the administration and scoring of the tests, rather than to a cultural effect. A standardized method is proposed for the application of the test. acn
Locus and nature of perceptual phonological deficit in Spanish children with reading disabilities. The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether Spanish children with reading disabilities (RD) show a speech perception deficit and (b) to explore the locus and nature of this perceptive deficit. A group of 29 children with RD, 41 chronological age-matched controls, and 27 reading ability-matched younger controls were tested on tasks of speech perception. The effect of linguistic unit (word vs. syllable) and type of phonetic contrast (voicing, place and manner of articulation) were analyzed in terms of the number of errors and the response time. The results revealed a speech perception deficit in Spanish children with RD that was independent of the type of phonetic contrast and of linguistic unit. jld.
Perceptual bias in speech error data collection: insights from Spanish speech errors. This paper studies the reliability and validity of naturalistic speech errors as a tool for language production research. Possible biases when collecting naturalistic speech errors are identified and specific predictions derived. These patterns are then contrasted with published reports from Germanic languages (English, German and Dutch) and one Romance language (Spanish). Unlike findings in the Germanic languages, Spanish speech errors show many patterns which run contrary to those expected from bias: (1) more phonological errors occur between words than within word; (2) word-initial consonants are less likely to participate in errors than word-medial consonants, (3) errors are equally likely in stressed and in unstressed syllables, (4) perseverations are more frequent than anticipations, and (5) there is no trace of a lexical bias. We present a new corpus of Spanish speech errors collected by many theoretically naïve observers (whereas the only corpus available so far was collected by two highly trained theoretically informed observers), give a general overview of it, and use it to replicate previous reports. In spite of the different susceptibility of these methods to bias, results were remarkably similar in both corpora and again contrary to predictions from bias. As a result, collecting speech errors "in the wild" seems to be free of bias to a reasonable extent even when using a multiple-collector method. The observed contrasting patterns between Spanish and Germanic languages arise as true cross-linguistic differences. jpr