Our English Spanish translation service comprises a wide variety of English into Spanish translations. Our Spanish linguists also write de novo Spanish articles based on English or Spanish texts. English Spanish translators in our group also write Spanish medical news for the general public about important new medical findings.
English or Spanish Science Language Articles.
Teaching struggling readers who are native Spanish speakers: what do we know? The purpose of this article is to share what we have learned from a series of 4 scientific studies about preventing reading failure through early intervention with native Spanish-speaking students who are struggling readers. The goal is to provide guidance to practitioners about effective practices for working with native Spanish-speaking children who are struggling to become readers using evidence rather than conjecture and opinion. METHOD: First, the method and findings are summarized from each of 4 scientific studies (2 English, 2 Spanish) examining supplemental reading intervention that was provided in addition to core reading instruction in first grade. Second, the supplemental interventions are detailed. Next, aspects of instruction that appear to generalize from what we know about preventing reading failure among native English speakers are discussed. Last, the types of adjustments made to this instruction in order to accommodate the needs of English language learners are examined. IMPLICATIONS: Outcomes confirm that native Spanish-speaking children benefited from explicit, systematic instruction that shared many of the same elements that have been proven to be effective with native English speakers. Further, English as a second language teaching techniques (i.e., use of concrete gestures and visual aids, consistent and repeated routines, and use of repeated phrases and consistent language) benefited native Spanish speakers who were struggling to learn to read in English. However, little transfer of knowledge from one language to another was detected. lshss.
Narrative and vocabulary development of bilingual children from kindergarten to first grade: developmental changes and associations among English and Spanish skills. PURPOSE: Research has identified English oral language proficiency as being critical for bilingual students' literacy development. This study examines developmental patterns and associations among oral vocabulary and narrative skills in a longitudinal sample of 24 Spanish/English bilingual children from low socioeconomic backgrounds so as to further our understanding of the development of oral proficiency. METHOD: English and Spanish data were gathered using standardized vocabulary tests and narrative elicitation tasks provided to kindergartners and first graders. Narratives were coded for length using two measures of productivity and for quality at two levels: story score and language score. Descriptive, correlation, multivariate, and regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Significant gains from kindergarten to first grade were found for all English oral language measures. Despite showing improvements in English vocabulary, the majority of children continued to score below the monolingual mean in first grade. For English narrative productivity, total number of different words (TDW) proved to be a sensitive developmental measure in contrast to total number of words (TNW). In Spanish, significant gains were noted only for narrative story score. Kindergarten Spanish story scores predicted first-grade English narrative quality even when controlling for the effects of English vocabulary and English narrative productivity. First-grade Spanish narrative quality was best predicted by Spanish vocabulary. IMPLICATIONS: The need for early assessment and monitoring of expressive vocabulary and oral narrative skills, and the potential contributions of Spanish story organization skills to English narrative performance in bilingual children from low socioeconomic families, are highlighted.