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Grammatical category-specific deficits in bilingual aphasia. We report the naming performance of an early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilingual (JPG) suffering from Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). JPG's performance revealed a grammatical category-specific deficit, with worse performance in naming verbs than nouns. This dissociation was present in oral and written naming and in his two languages, and it seems to stem from damage to, at least, the lexical level. Despite the fact that JPG's performance was qualitatively very similar across languages, his second language seemed to be more affected than his first language. These results indicate that the cortical organization of the two languages of highly proficient bilinguals follow similar organizational principles, one of this principles being grammatical class. bl.
Design of short Spanish sentences for measuring reading performance: Radner-Vissum test. PURPOSE: To develop 24 short Spanish optotype sentences for the construction of a test based on the Radner reading test to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. SETTING: Department of Refractive Surgery, Vissum-Instituto de Oftalmológico de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. METHODS: Thirty-one sentences were constructed in Spanish following the procedure defined by Radner to obtain sentence optotypes with comparable structure and the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and standardized in 60 patients divided into 2 groups by educational level. Group A (30 patients) had a university education and Group B (30 patients), a primary school education. The interval of reading time was defined as the overall mean +/-1.1 x SD. All sentences with a mean between 3.59 seconds and 4.04 seconds were selected for the reading charts. RESULTS: The mean age was 30.8 years +/- 6.2 (SD) in Group A and 37.3 +/- 10.7 years in Group B. The mean reading time was 3.8 +/- 0.9 seconds in all patients, 3.5 +/- 0.6 seconds in Group A, and 4.1 +/- 1.0 seconds in Group B. CONCLUSION: The 24 short single Spanish sentences were highly comparable in syntactical structure; number, position, and length of words; lexical difficulty; and reading length. jcrf.
A database of orthographic neighbors for Spanish read by children. In this article, we present a database of orthographic neighbors for words that Spanish children read during elementary education. The reference dictionary for lexical entries and frequencies (which had its origin in Martínez & García, 2004) comprises approximately 100,000 words and is the result of accumulating the words read by a sample of children from first to sixth grades. Using the criterion for orthographic neighbors described by Coltheart, Davelaar, Jonasson, and Besner (1977), we present basic statistics related to neighborhood size as a function of the positions of divergent letters, the cumulative frequency of the neighbors, and the numbers of neighbors of higher, lower, and equal frequency. We also attempt to illustrate and unravel the nature of the relationships among the variables neighborhood size, length, and frequency in the distribution of neighbors. The database described in this article is available at www.psychonomic.org/archive. brm.