Our English Spanish translation service comprises a wide variety of English into Spanish translations. Our Spanish linguists also write de novo Spanish articles based on English or Spanish texts. English Spanish translators in our group also write Spanish medical news for the general public about important new medical findings.
English or Spanish Science Language Articles.
Bilingual children and communication disorders: a 30-year research retrospective. We present a review of the empirical literature at the intersection of bilingualism and pediatric communication disorders. A computer search of six electronic databases was done to identify studies published in English since 1950 that directly investigated some aspect of speech, language, or cognitive performance in developing bilinguals and children with communication impairments. The computer search yielded 116 non-duplicated articles, the first published in 1978. An article review by the authors further reduced the number of studies meeting search criteria to 64. A majority of studies focused on primary developmental language impairment (LI) and children learning two languages sequentially. Spanish and English were the most frequent combination of languages for bilingual participants. Collective study findings are presented with respect to trends, clinical implications, and areas for future research. Thieme Medical Publishers. ssl.
Accommodating variability in voice and foreign accent: flexibility of early word representations. In six experiments with English-learning infants, we examined the effects of variability in voice and foreign accent on word recognition. We found that 9-month-old infants successfully recognized words when two native English talkers with dissimilar voices produced test and familiarization items (Experiment 1). When the domain of variability was shifted to include variability in voice as well as in accent, 13-, but not 9-month-olds, recognized a word produced across talkers when only one had a Spanish accent (Experiments 2 and 3). Nine-month-olds accommodated some variability in accent by recognizing words when the same Spanish-accented talker produced familiarization and test items (Experiment 4). However, 13-, but not 9-month-olds, could do so when test and familiarization items were produced by two distinct Spanish-accented talkers (Experiments 5 and 6). These findings suggest that, although monolingual 9-month-olds have abstract phonological representations, these representations may not be flexible enough to accommodate the modifications found in foreign-accented speech. ds
The time course of orthography and phonology: ERP correlates of masked priming effects in Spanish. One key issue for computational models of visual-word recognition is the time course of orthographic and phonological information during reading. Previous research, using both behavioral and event related brain potential (ERP) measures, has shown that orthographic codes are activated very early but that phonological activation starts to occur immediately afterward. Here we report an ERP masked priming experiment in Spanish that investigates this issue further by using very strict control conditions. The critical phonological comparison was between two pairs of primes having the same orthographic similarity to the target words but differing in phonological similarity (e.g., conal-CANAL vs. cinal-CANAL vis à vis ponel-PANEL vs. pinel-PANEL), whereas the critical orthographic contrast was between pairs of primes that had the same phonological similarity to the target but differing in orthographic similarity (e.g., conal-CANAL vs. konal-CANAL). Orthographic priming was mainly observed in the 150-250-ms time window whereas phonological priming occurred in the 350-550-ms window. p.